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Improving health
Previously NHS Health Scotland

Overview of Triple I

Triple I has been designed to help local and national decision makers.

Using the best data available, we provide practical tools and interpreted research findings. These estimate and compare the potential impact of different policies and interventions that can affect health and health inequalities in Scotland. This helps you decide which actions will have the biggest impact on population health and health inequalities, before implementation.

Research findings

National overview report

This report and its supporting documents compare the potential population impact of all of the Triple I interventions on health inequalities in Scotland.

Income-based policies briefing

This report summarises the impact of the income-based Triple I policies on improving health and reducing health inequalities.

Using the tools

Policies and interventions that can be estimated and compared

The policies and interventions that you can estimate impacts for and compare using the Triple I tools are as follows.

  • Income: 29 income-based policies (e.g. changes to taxation or benefits, Citizen’s Basic Income, and payment of the real Living Wage).
  • Physical environment: 20 mph speed limits.
  • Unemployment: Job provision.
  • Obesity: Weight management services.
  • Alcohol consumption: Alcohol Brief Intervention (ABI).
  • Mental health: Three interventions for depression.
  • Physical inactivity: Two physical activity interventions.
  • Smoking: Smoking cessation service and tobacco taxation. 

Health outcomes that are measured

The Triple I tools measure population health and health inequalities in terms of the following health outcomes.

  • Premature deaths.
  • Years of life lost.
  • Hospital stays.

How results can be tailored

You can produce Triple I results for these location types.

  • Scotland as a whole.
  • Local authorities.
  • Health boards.
  • City regions.
  • Integrated joint boards.

You can also produce results for different time periods.

Get involved

Triple I is a project led by NHS Health Scotland as part of the Scottish Public Health Observatory (ScotPHO) collaboration. 

For more information on the Triple I project, please email us at